Jordan is one of the most water scarce countries in the world. Jordan covers an area of about 89 000 km2 with a mostly Mediterranean climate (arid to semi-arid), with three main climatic and geographic zones: the highlands, Jordan Valley, and the eastern desert. The highlands (600–1 500 MASL) extend from the northern to the southern part of the country and separate the Jordan Valley from the desert. The northern and central parts of the highlands are characterized by a hot dry summer and a cold wet winter, receiving the highest amounts of precipitation in the country (300–600 mm per year). The Jordan Valley (200–400 MBSL) extends along the western part of the country and is the most fertile area in Jordan. The climate is arid with a hot dry summer, a warm winter and an average precipitation of less than 200 mm per year. The eastern desert (0–900 MASL) covers around 80 percent of the country and receives an average precipitation of less than 150 mm per year. Agriculture consumes around 52 percent of the water withdrawn in the country. While the demand on water is continuously increasing and exceeding the available supply, it is necessary to add always more value to any drop of water. This could be achieved through assessing and improving water productivity.